AskDefine | Define pronate

Dictionary Definition

pronate v : turn the forearm or the hand so that the palm is directed downwards

User Contributed Dictionary



  1. To turn or rotate one’s hand so that the palm faces down or back.
  2. To become pronated.
  3. To twist the foot so that if walking the weight would be borne on the inner edge of the foot.


Derived terms

Extensive Definition

Pronation is an anatomical term to describe a rotation movement. Such movement can occur in the forearm (at the radioulnar joint) and the foot (at the subtalar and talocalcaneonavicular joints).
For the forearm, when standing in the anatomical position pronation will move the palm of the hand from an anterior-facing position to a posterior-facing position without an associated movement at the shoulder (gleno-humeral joint). For the foot pronation will cause the sole of the foot to face more laterally than when standing in the anatomical position.
Pronation is the opposite of supination.

Pronation of the Forearm

It is performed by the Pronator quadratus and Pronator teres muscle.
Pronation of the forearm should not be confused with medial rotation of the shoulder. When standing in the anatomical position, medial rotation of the shoulder can perform part of the movement to change the palm from facing anteriorly to posteriorly. Pronation of the forearm occurs at the radioulnar joint so such a movement does not constitute it. To isolate medial rotation in the shoulder from pronation of the forearm one can stand with one's elbows tucked against the trunk, with the elbows flexed to 90 degrees with the forearms pointing directly in front of the body with the palms of the hands facing upwards. Keeping ones elbows tucked at the sides, the act of moving one's forearms so that the palms are facing downwards is pronation of the forearm.

Pronation of the Foot

The pronated foot is one in which the heel bone angles inward and the arch tends to collapse. A "knock-kneed" person has overly pronated feet. This flattens the arch as the foot strikes the ground in order to absorb shock when the heel hits the ground, and to assist in balance during mid-stance. If habits develop, this action can lead to foot pain as well as knee pain, shin splints, achilles tendinitis and plantar fasciitis..

External links

pronate in Arabic: كب
pronate in German: Pronation
pronate in French: Pronation
pronate in Dutch: Pronatie
pronate in Portuguese: Pronação
pronate in Swedish: Pronation
pronate in Chinese: 旋前肌
Privacy Policy, About Us, Terms and Conditions, Contact Us
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2
Material from Wikipedia, Wiktionary, Dict
Valid HTML 4.01 Strict, Valid CSS Level 2.1